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TIPE3 represses head and neck squamous cell carcinoma progression via triggering PGAM5 mediated mitochondria dysfunction.
Mitochondria are essential organelles in balancing oxidative stress and cell death during cancer cell proliferation. Rapid tumor growth induces tremendous stress on mitochondria. The mammalian tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-likes (TIPEs) family plays critical roles in balancing cancer cell death and survival. Yet, the roles of TIPEs in HNSCC tumorigenesis and mitochondria stress maintenance is unclear. Based on an integrative analysis of public HNSCC datasets, we identified that the downregulation of TIPE3 via its promoter hypermethylation modification is the major event of TIPEs alterations during HNSCC tumorigenesis. Low expression levels of TIPE3 were correlated with high malignancy and poor clinical outcomes of HNSCC patients. Restoring TIPE3 represses HNSCC proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo, while silencing TIPE3 acted on an opposite way. Mechanistically, TIPE3 band to the PGAM5 and electron transport chain (ETC) complex. Restoring TIPE3 promoted PGAM5 recruiting BAX and dephosphorylating p-DRP1(Ser637), which triggered mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and fragmentation. Ultimately, TIPE3 induced ETC damage and oxygen consumption rate decrease, ROS accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, and cell apoptosis. Collectively, our work reveals that TIPE3 plays critical role in maintaining mitochondrial stress and cancer cell progression in HNSCC, which might be a potential therapeutic target for HNSCC patients.
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