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Methods for assessing guideline adherence for invasive procedures in the care of chronic coronary artery disease: a scoping review.
In the care of coronary artery disease (CAD), evidence questions the adequate application of guidelines for cardiovascular procedures, particularly coronary angiographies (CA) and myocardial revascularisation. This review aims to examine how care providers' guideline adherence for CA and myocardial revascularisation in the care of chronic CAD was assessed in the literature.

Scoping review.

PubMed and EMBASE were searched through in June 2021 (rerun in September 2022).

We included studies assessing care providers' adherence to evidence-based guidelines for CA or myocardial revascularisation in the care of chronic CAD. Studies had to list the evaluation of guideline adherence as study objective, describe the evaluation methods used and report the underlying guidelines and recommendations.

Two independent reviewers used standardised forms to extract study characteristics, methodological aspects such as data sources and variables, definitions of guideline adherence and quantification methods and the extent of guideline adherence. To elucidate the measurement of guideline adherence, the main steps were described.

Twelve studies (311 869 participants) were included, which evaluated guideline adherence by (1) defining guideline adherence, (2) specifying the study population, (3) assigning (classes of) recommendations and (4) quantifying adherence. Thereby, primarily secondary data were used. Studies differed in their definitions of guideline adherence, where six studies each considered only recommendation class I/grade A/strong recommendations as adherent or additionally recommendation classes IIa/IIb. Furthermore, some of the studies reported a priori definitions and allocation rules for the assignment of recommendation classes. Guideline adherence results ranged from 10% for percutaneous coronary intervention with prior heart team discussion to 98% for coronary artery bypass grafting.

Due to remarkable inconsistencies in the assessment, a cautious interpretation of the guideline adherence results is required. Future efforts should endeavour to establish a consistent understanding of the concept of guideline adherence.
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