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WHO 'My five moments for hand hygiene' in anaesthesia induction: a video-based analysis reveals novel system challenges and design opportunities.
Anaesthesia induction is a fast-paced, complex activity that involves a high density of hand-to-surface exposures. Hand hygiene (HH) adherence has been reported to be low, which bears the potential for unnoticed pathogen transmission between consecutive patients.

To study the fit of the World Health Organization's (WHO) five moments of HH concept to the anaesthesia induction workflow.

Video recordings of 59 anaesthesia inductions were analysed according to the WHO HH observation method considering each hand-to-surface exposure of every involved anaesthesia provider. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for non-adherence, i.e. professional category, gender, task role, gloves, holding of objects, team size and HH moment. Additionally, half of all videos were recoded for quantitative and qualitative analysis of provider self-touching.

Overall, 2240 HH opportunities were met by 105 HH actions (4.7%). The drug administrator role (odds ratio (OR): 2.2), the senior physician status (OR: 2.1), donning (OR: 2.6) and doffing (OR: 3.6) of gloves were associated with higher HH adherence. Notably, 47.2% of all HH opportunities were caused by self-touching behaviour. Provider clothes, face, and patient skin were the most frequently touched surfaces.

The high density of hand-to-surface exposures, a high cognitive load, prolonged glove use, carried mobile objects, self-touching, and personal behaviour patterns were potential causes for non-adherence. A purpose-designed HH concept based on these results, involving the introduction of designated objects and provider clothes to the patient zone, could improve HH adherence and microbiological safety.
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