Ultrasonic Treatment Enhances the Antioxidant and Immune-Stimulatory Properties of the Polysaccharide from Sinopodophyllum hexandrum Fruit.
We aimed to assess the potential of ultrasonic treatment on the processing of polysaccharides as functional foods or food additives. The polysaccharide from Sinopodophyllum hexandrum fruit (SHP, 52.46 kDa, 1.91 nm) was isolated and purified. SHP was treated with various levels of ultrasound (250 W and 500 W), resulting in the formation of two polysaccharides, SHP1 (29.37 kD, 1.40 nm) and SHP2 (36.91 kDa, 0.987 nm). Ultrasonic treatment was found to reduce the surface roughness and molecular weight of the polysaccharides, leading to thinning and fracturing. The effect of ultrasonic treatment on polysaccharide activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vivo experiments showed that ultrasonic treatment improved the organ index. Simultaneously, it enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and decreased the content of malondialdehyde in the liver. In vitro experiments demonstrated that ultrasonic treatment also promoted proliferation, nitric oxide secretion, phagocytic efficiency, costimulatory factors (CD80+, CD86+) expression, and cytokine(IL-6, IL-1β) production of RAW264.7 macrophages.