Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand (TSANZ) position statement on chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis in children, adolescents and adults in Australia and New Zealand.
This position statement, updated from the 2015 guidelines for managing Australian and New Zealand children/adolescents and adults with chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis, resulted from systematic literature searches by a multi-disciplinary team that included consumers. The main statements are: Diagnose CSLD and bronchiectasis early; this requires awareness of bronchiectasis symptoms and its co-existence with other respiratory diseases (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Confirm bronchiectasis with a chest computed-tomography scan, using age-appropriate protocols and criteria in children. Undertake a baseline panel of investigations. Assess baseline severity, and health impact, and develop individualized management plans that include a multi-disciplinary approach and coordinated care between healthcare providers. Employ intensive treatment to improve symptom control, reduce exacerbation frequency, preserve lung function, optimize quality-of-life and enhance survival. In children, treatment also aims to optimize lung growth and, when possible, reverse bronchiectasis. Individualize airway clearance techniques (ACTs) taught by respiratory physiotherapists, encourage regular exercise, optimize nutrition, avoid air pollutants and administer vaccines following national schedules. Treat exacerbations with 14-day antibiotic courses based upon lower airway culture results, local antibiotic susceptibility patterns, clinical severity and patient tolerance. Patients with severe exacerbations and/or not responding to outpatient therapy are hospitalized for further treatments, including intravenous antibiotics and intensive ACTs. Eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa when newly detected in lower airway cultures. Individualize therapy for long-term antibiotics, inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators and mucoactive agents. Ensure ongoing care with 6-monthly monitoring for complications and co-morbidities. Undertake optimal care of under-served peoples, and despite its challenges, delivering best-practice treatment remains the overriding aim.